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Perl Regular Expression for .htaccess Cheat Sheet

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Perl Regular Expression Cheat Sheet

This document presents a quick tabular summary of the regular expression (regexp) syntax in Perl, with examples.

The methods used here are also the methods you will need for manipulating your htaccess files.

Meta Characters

To present a meta character as a data character standing for itself, precede it with (e.g. . matches the full stop character .).

Char Name (ISO 8859-1) Unicode HTML Octal Meaning
^ Circumflex accent 005E ^ 136 beginning of string
$ Dollar sign 0024 $ 44 end of string
. Full stop 002E . 56 any character except newline
* Asterisk 002A * 52 match 0 or more times
+ Plus sign 002B + 53 match 1 or more times
? Question mark 003F ? 77 match 0 or 1 times; or: shortest match
| Vertical line 007C | 174 alternative
( ) Left parenthesis
Right parenthesis
0028
0029
(
&#41
50
51
grouping; "storing"
[ ] Left square bracket
Right square bracket
005B
005D
[
]
133
135
set of characters
{ } Left curly bracket
Right square bracket
007B
005D
{
]
173
135
repetition modifier
| Vertical line or bar 007C | 174  
Reverse solidus or backslash 005C \ 134 quote or special and escape notation

 

Repetition

a* zero or more occurrences of string, each of which matches pattern a
a+ one or more occurrences of string, each of which matches pattern a
a? zero or one occurrences of string, each of which matches pattern a (i.e., optional a)
a{m} exactly m occurrences of string, each of which matches pattern a
a{m,} at least m occurrences of string, each of which matches pattern a
a{m,n} at least m but at most n occurrences of string, each of which matches pattern a
repetition? same as any of the repetition expressions listed above but the shortest string matching the pattern is taken. The default is "greedy matching", which finds the longest match. (Perl version 5)

 

Special notations with "Backslash"

t tab
n newline
r return (CR)
xhh character with hex. code hh
b "word" boundary
B not a "word" boundary

 

Special Matching Notations

w matches any single character classified as a "word" character (alphanumeric or "_")
W matches any non-"word" character
s matches any whitespace character (space, tab, newline)
S matches any non-whitespace character
d matches any digit character, equiv. to [0-9]
D matches any non-digit character

 

Character Sets (Character Class) Denoted By […]

[characters] matches any of the characters in the sequence
[x-y] matches any of the characters x to y (inclusive) in the ASCII code
[-] matches the hyphen character
[n] matches the newline character, same for other single character denotations with (backslash)
[^something] matches NOT something

 

Examples

abc Find abc anywhere in the string.
^abc Find abc at the beginning of the string.
abc$ Find abc at the end of the string.
a|b Find either a OR b anywhere in the string.
^abc|abc$ Find abc at the beginning OR end of the string.
ab{2,4}c Find an a followed by two, three or four b’s followed by a c.
ab{2,}c Find an a followed by at least two b’s followed by a c .
ab+c Find an a followed by one or more b’s followed by a c .
ab?c Find an a followed by an optional b followed by a c.
a.c Find an a followed by any single character except newline followed by a c.
a.c Matches exactly.
[abc] Find either a OR b OR c.
d{2} Matches any two decimal digits, i.e. 42.
w+ Matches a "word", a nonempty sequence of alphanumeric characters and underscores.

 

Many thanks to IT and communication (http://www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/indexen.html) for the information contained within this cheat sheet.

 


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